Diseases with the cardinal features of diabetes mellitus were recognized in antiquity. The Hindu physicians, Charak and Sushrut were first to note it among the overweight and gluttonous. There was awareness of different grades of severity of diabetes for many centuries; however, the possibility that there were two distinct types only emerged at the beginning of the 20th century. Diabetes is renowned as a “silent epidemic”. The slow progression and lack of symptoms in the early stages of disease preclude seeking medical attention and preventative care. The term “insulin” was coined by Macleod and soon insulin was available widely throughout North America and Europe. Most patients with T2DM have features of insulin resistance and are often hypertensive and abdominal obese. Looking at some future directions, the application of stem cell therapy is promising as it may provide a source of cells that are identical or nearly identical to β-cells, and it may be possible to engineer stem cells to evade immune recognition. However, Asia continues to emerge as the epicenter of the cardio-metabolic pandemic, which is very serious.
MD Medicine; Assistant Professor in GMC Kathua, J&K, India; Prolific researcher with extensive research work on Diabetes Mellitus. More than 18 original research publications and 4 books to credit.
Number of Pages:
Diabetes, T2DM, T1DM, Insulin resistance, Carbohydrate metabolism, Ketoacidosis
MEDICAL / General