The importance of water to all life on Earth cannot be overstated. Although it is considered a simple liquid, water has been under intense scrutiny at the molecular scale for several decades. The directional nature of hydrogen bonds ensures that water molecules are not random but have a great propensity towards order, particularly at the interface of other substances. This study investigates some recent claims of long-range ordering of interface water molecules, giving rise to a phase between liquid and solid.
Peter Spencer began his career studying Industrial Design with a focus on innovation. He has since investigated molecular physics and its medical applications. Peter is currently studying chemistry with an aim to complete a PhD.
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Structured Water, Nafion, Magnetised Water, Interface water, Birefringence
SCIENCE / Physics